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Your skin is a reflection of your inner world and wellbeing.

We want you to see the authentic beauty that is already in you.

When your mind, body and spirit are in balance, both your eyes and skin shine bright – and this has nothing to do with your age. Imperfections are always part of human life. However, skin problems can be valuable messengers from deep inside. We help you listen, understand and treat them in a holistic way.

Your skin is a reflection of your inner world and wellbeing.

When your mind, body and spirit are in balance, both your eyes and skin shine bright – and this has nothing to do with your age. Imperfections are always part of human life. However, skin problems can be valuable messengers from deep inside. We help you listen, understand and treat them in a holistic way.

Pigment spots are typically an adult skin problem. They can occur on any skin type and are associated with a hormonal imbalance. They may also be caused by an underlying disease, medication, post-inflammatory condition or liver dysfunction.

 

The most common types of pigment disorders are lentigos and melasma. Melasma is caused by a hormonal disorder. It can occur as large spots, typically around the lips, forehead and cheekbones. Melasma is associated with the increased production of melanocyte-stimulating hormones, which may occur more frequently in people using hormonal contraceptives, or during pregnancy or menopause. Melasma spots that form during pregnancy may disappear on their own over time. Chronic stress can also cause melasma, because the hypothalamus and pituitary gland also produce melanocyte-stimulating hormones.

 

Lentigos are smaller, spottier patches than melasma and usually occur on areas of skin that are exposed to a lot of sun, such as the palms of the hands and décolleté, as the skin ages. Lentigos are also called sunspots.

 

Hyperpigmentation can also occur after skin damage, the most typical example of which is scarring caused by acne.

 

Treating hyperpigmentation is challenging. Protecting your skin with a high sun protection factor (SPF) is the most effective way to prevent pigment spots when in the sun. If you are prone to hyperpigmentation, a high SPF should be used from spring to late summer, especially when outdoors in sunny weather. In other regards the skin should be treated according to skin type, but the products should contain anti-pigmentation and brightening agents. In addition to external products, it is important to combine the treatment with manual therapy, that is, facial massage, which improves the metabolism of the skin and stimulates the flow of lymphatic fluids. It is also important to remove stress because this balances hormonal activity.

 

Pigment spots can be treated with substances that inhibit the formation of melanin, or pigment, by preventing the production of hormones that stimulate melanocytes. In addition, there are substances that inhibit the activity of the tyrosinase enzyme involved in melanin production. Pigment production can also be prevented through the use of agents that prevent melanin-filled melanosomes from migrating to the upper layers of the skin meaning that the pigment cannot form. In addition, there are substances that break down melanin. The effects of treatment for pigment spots are usually only visible after 2–4 months of treatment and it is absolutely essential that the treatment is holistic to get the best results.

 

Fruit acids, bisabolol, acai berry oil, reishi, cucumber, liquorice root, mulberry, lilies, daffodils, probiotics, amla, vitamin C, vitamin E and arbutin are good active ingredients for minimising the appearance of pigment spots. In addition, all antioxidants are useful in the treatment of pigment spots. Glycolic acid, a member of the AHA group of acids, both helps to treat pigment spots, but also predisposes the skin to them; therefore, the skin should always be protected with a sunscreen product when using AHA acids.

 

Skin-care products can only affect the surface of the skin, but in the treatment of pigment spots it is also important to treat the deeper dermis and improve the metabolism of the skin and the removal of waste products by activating lymphatic circulation. Therefore, a regular facial massage a few times a week is an important part of the treatment.

 

Chinese medicine views pigment disorders as being liver related. Therefore, the skin’s treatment can be supported with a course of herbal supplements. Good herbs for the liver include burdock, nettle, dandelion, turmeric and globe artichoke. A nutrient-rich diet made up of whole foods also supports liver function. Ultra-processed foods, low-quality vegetable oils and sugar should be avoided.

 

Djusie skin-care products are designed to treat pigment spots. The Liquid Silk Cleansing Oil helps keep the skin’s protective hydrolipidic film in balance, creating the foundation for external skin care. The cider vinegar, reishi extract and gotu kola contained in Djusie’s Acid Bloom essence brighten the skin and prevent the formation of pigment spots. Djusie’s Fruit Glaze facial oil is a powerful product for treating pigment spots. The raw materials it contains are optimal for minimising their appearance: each has a beneficial effect in the treatment of pigment spots, but bisabolol and acai berry oil act together in a special way. This compound has been found to inhibit the formation of pigment spots and brighten skin tone without sensitising the skin, more effectively and for a longer time than kojic acid and arbutin.

Skin care products can only affect the surface of the skin and its top layer, the epidermis. Very few of the raw materials in cosmetics can penetrate the epidermis and be absorbed as deep down as the dermis. It is also not necessary for the skin to absorb substances that deeply.

 

Using quality products in the right way can affect the appearance of the epidermis, by smoothing fine lines, softening the skin’s surface, brightening and smoothing skin tone, and preventing the onset of certain skin problems – especially those caused by unsuitable care routines or external stressors. Skin care can be compared to floriculture: plants need to be sprayed with water, large leaves dusted and dry leaves cut – however, if the soil is left untouched, the plant will not flower. External skin care is important, but at least as important is treating the deeper skin layers with manual treatment because skin care products cannot reach them. Thus, the most effective treatment is one that combines the application of skin care products and manual treatment.

 

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Manual treatments include various types of facial massage that manipulate the connective tissue. The aim of such treatments is to relieve tension in the connective tissue and muscles; enhance the skin’s metabolism, lymphatic circulation and blood circulation; increase the elasticity and mobility of connective tissue, and improve its moisture content. There are numerous techniques, from very light lymphatic massage to manipulation of loose connective tissue, as well as deeper treatments. It is essential to understand that using force is not more effective, but rather the opposite is true: trying to release tension with force can backfire and cause more blockages. Therefore, it is useful to compare connective tissue manipulation to peeling an onion: something that is best done layer by layer.

 

Djusie facial massage is based on connective tissue manipulation. It differs from conventional facial massage in that the purpose is to move the skin, not move over the skin. The technique creates more space in the connective tissues, allowing the face to relax and receive a natural face lift. The technique also uses a combination of mechanical tension and compression that flushes the connective tissue, pushing the fluids in the intercellular matrix along so that the connective tissue is refilled with fresh fluid. In addition, the massage stimulates acupuncture points.

 

The fibroblast cells that produce the connective tissues, that is, collagen, elastin and intercellular material, respond to mechanical tension and compression. They need mechanical strain to ensure that they do not become dormant but remain active. Connective tissue manipulation is thus very effective in maintaining the well-being of facial connective tissue and ensuring vibrant facial skin. In addition, manipulation keeps the intercellular material elastic and flexible. Cellular metabolism takes place through the intercellular material and plays an important role as a lubricant between the different structures and layers of connective tissue. The intercellular material is thixotropic, which means that under static conditions it thickens and solidifies. When this happens, the moisture content of the connective tissues reduces, the metabolism of the cells slows down and the fluids remain in the space between the cells. As the moisture content of the connective tissues falls, their mobility suffers and they begin to stick together. Dry and tense connective tissues compress the blood and lymphatic vessels as well as nerves, which can cause various pains, dullness of the skin and swelling.

 

It is important to remember a few rules of thumb for effective connective tissue manipulation: the larger the blockages and tensions in the tissues, the lighter the touch must be. Concerning the rhythm of the massage, slowness increases its effectiveness, while speed reduces it. The more blocked the tissues, the slower the manipulation needs to be. The rule of thumb for rhythm is that the maximum speed is one centimetre per second.

 

In terms of Djusie products, there are two different facial massage rituals. A mini facial massage using the Liquid Silk cleansing oil should be performed every day. This prepares the skin to receive the skin care products, and also serves as part of an excellent daily routine to maintain the skin’s metabolism and prevent the formation of tension and blockages in the connective tissues. A more thorough facial massage using the Fruit Glaze facial oil can be performed a few (maybe three) times a week. Regularity is the key to visible results.

 

We want to encourage every Djusie user to explore their own skin more deeply than the surface through facial massage rituals. Once you have mastered the technique, you will never touch your skin in the same way again and, more importantly, your perspective of the effects of skin care will be forever changed!

Identifying your own skin type is a prerequisite for an optimal skin care routine. Discover your skin type and its needs with this guide.

 

Three basic skin types

 

There are subtle differences in the breakdown of skin types depending on the perspective from which the topic is approached. However, there are only three basic skin types: normal, dry and oily skin. Combination skin, dry oily skin and sensitive skin, on the other hand, are skin imbalances that should be treated according to their individual needs. The actual skin type underlying the imbalance is thus permanent, but symptoms such as moisture deprivation, impurities and sensitivity are not. The balance of the skin is affected by numerous internal and external factors that can be affected by lifestyle and holistic skin care.

 

Analysing your skin type

 

Skin type analysis should always be done on clean and makeup-free skin. The skin should first be cleansed with a cleanser that does not strip the skin too much but is easily rinsed off. Cleansing oil is the best option.

 

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Normal skin

The sebum secretion of normal skin works normally, i.e., the skin shines a little during the day, but makeup stays on well nonetheless. The moisture content of the skin is balanced, and the skin does not feel tight in the morning when you wake up or after washing. The surface of the skin feels soft and smooth, and the tone is light. The skin looks smooth and plump, although depending on age, the skin may have wrinkles and/or be loose. The pores are slightly visible in normal skin and more clearly so with age as the tissues become looser. Pimples may sometimes appear during the menstrual cycle in normal skin. There may also be some blackheads in the nose and chin area

Even normal skin can easily become unbalanced if you wash it with a cleanser that is too strong, over-treat it with strong products or do not take care of the skin’s moisture–fat balance with the use of an essence and facial oil.

 

Skin care for normal skin

Normal skin should be cleansed in the mornings and evenings with a cleansing oil, after which the skin should be moisturised with a few layers of essence before facial oil is applied to the skin. The skin should not be washed with soap, cleansing foam or gel as these will damage the skin’s hydrolipidic membrane and cause it to become unbalanced, creating the conditions in which skin problems occur. Mild acids, when used daily, maintain the balance of normal skin and reduce the need for powerful products such as peels, serums and masks. Regular facial massage, performed a few times a week, will maintain the moisture content of the connective tissues, the metabolism of the skin and the flow of lymph fluids, thus preventing the emergence of various imbalances and signs of premature ageing, and keep the face looking fresh.

Dry skin

The sebum secretion of dry skin is reduced, and the skin does not shine during the day. In addition, the moisture content of the skin is reduced, and the skin feels tight easily, especially after cleansing. The pores in dry skin can hardly be seen at all and the skin is usually thin, which makes it prone to rosacea or sensitivity. Wrinkles can occur on dry skin, even at a young age, due to the lack of moisture and fat. With older dry skin, the pores are usually more visible as the tissues become loose and the skin may look ‘empty’. 

When dry skin is well taken care of, it is smooth and even. With inadequate skin care, the colour is pale, and skin may flake off and feel rough. Milia can also appear on the surface of the skin.

 

Skin care for dry skin

Soaps or foaming cleansers such as cleansing foam or gel should not be used on dry skin at all. Cleansing oil is the best option. Moisturise the skin carefully by applying a few coats of essence to the skin and then apply a facial oil. Dry skin benefits from the daily use of mildly acidic products, as acids moisturise the skin and strengthen its protective barrier. However, strong acids should be avoided. A facial massage performed a few times a week will strengthen the connective tissues and improve their moisture content, prevent the skin from wrinkling, and improve skin metabolism and lymph fluid flow, thus preventing sensitization and rosacea.

Oily skin or seborrhea oleosa

In oily skin sebum secretion is increased, the skin shines abundantly and makeup ‘melts’ off the skin during the day. The pores of the skin stand out clearly and can be deep. The skin is usually thickish or thick and is not sensitive. Balanced oily skin glows and may not have any impurities other than some blackheads. Oily skin could be called normal oily skin. However, if there is an imbalance, the skin may be dull in colour and there may be plenty of blackheads, pimples and blockages on the skin.

 

Skin care for oily skin

You may want to wash oily skin with foaming cleansers that leave the skin feeling squeaky-clean. That, however, does a disservice to the skin and only increases the secretion of sebum. In the treatment of oily skin, the aim is to balance sebum secretion and prevent impurities and the clogging of pores, but products that are too cleansing and astringent should be avoided, as should over-treatment of the skin. 

Oily skin should be cleansed in the mornings with a cleansing oil that leaves the skin soft and balanced. If you are used to squeaky-clean skin after washing, this may require a little getting used to, but you will soon notice the benefits. Oily skin is usually alkaline, so a daily dose of a mild acid helps to balance sebum secretion and prevent impurities. Therefore, after cleansing, the skin should be moisturised with an essence containing mild acids. Finally, a few drops of facial oil should be applied to the skin because cold-pressed vegetable oils balance the skin’s sebum secretion. A facial massage performed a few times a week will improve the metabolism of the skin and the flow of lymph fluids, as well as keeping the connective tissues moving, thus preventing the pores from clogging and creating impurities.

 

There are three main products in skin care: cleansing oil, essence and facial oil. Other products are complementary or power products whose use depends on the condition and the needs of the skin.

 

1. Cleansing Oil


Cleansing oil is the best choice for cleansing the skin, as it effectively removes, among other things, make-up and oil soluble sunscreen products. In addition, cleansing oil effectively dissolves dirt and excess sebum deep from the skin pores. It thus deep-cleans the skin but does not dry out or wash away the hydrolipidic film that protects the skin. Nor does it interfere with the skin’s pH, which is supposed to be acidic. Water-based cleaning agents, such as cleaning foams and gels, contain large amounts of surfactants, i.e., ingredients that clean and wash. However, these easily wash away your own sebum, which is important for the skin, and the hydrolipidic membrane that maintains the pH balance. The skin’s own sebum secretion may even accelerate, as the skin begins to repair the lost sebum by secreting more of it – this is a natural part of the skin’s own protective mechanism and its ability to adapt to external conditions.

Cleansing oil is also suitable for oily skin. It does not increase the oiliness of the skin – on the contrary, it balances the skin’s sebum secretion. It is important to understand that issues such as pimples, blockages, blackheads and excessive oiliness cannot be resolved through washing, but by balancing the skin internally and externally.

In addition to genuine, 100% vegetable oils, a high-quality cleansing oil contains an emulsifier, i.e., a surfactant, which enables the cleansing oil to be rinsed off with water. This type of cleansing oil is the most pleasant to use. Mechanical effectiveness can be added by removing the cleansing oil from the skin with a flannel or sponge instead of rinsing with water.

Skin cleansing is a key part of skin care, so it should not be regarded as a necessary evil that is done sloppily before the actual care products are applied. It is important to apply the cleansing oil to dry skin (face and neck) and it should be thoroughly massaged into the skin for about 1-2 minutes before removing it. The cleansing oil can be used for both day and night skin care.

Djusie’s Liquid Silk Perfect Cleansing Oil keeps the hydrolipidic film of the skin in balance while removing all the dirt that has accumulated on the skin during the day, as well as sun protection and even waterproof make-up. It rinses off effortlessly with water. Liquid Silk is suitable for all skin types.

 

 

2. Essence

 

A high-quality essence is one of the most important cornerstones of skin care, as hydration of the skin, i.e., the introduction of aqueous moisture into the skin, creates the basis for moisturising the skin. The skin needs both moisture (water) and fats (oils) to stay in balance. Facial oils and thick moisturisers are not good for the skin if the skin lacks water moisture.

The surface of a moisture-poor skin is like a thick shield that rejects products applied to it and also clogs easily, allowing the skin to tighten and dry on the surface, but with blockages under the skin that may feel like an uneven and bumpy but do not break out. Skin that lacks water also wrinkles easily. On dry skin, lines are often due to a lack of moisture

Essence should be dabbed on by hand to the face, neck and décolleté in the morning and evening. Applying it with cotton wool wastes the product and wipes it off the skin instead of letting it absorb into the skin. Add a few drops of essence to the palms of your hands and then dab it on the skin until it is absorbed. This should be repeated until the skin feels distinctly soft, smooth, supple and plump.

The need for layers of essence varies depending on the condition of the skin and external conditions. If the skin is already lacking in moisture, it will need more moisturising initially, but after a while you will notice that the amount can be reduced. Stress and, especially in Finland, rapidly changing weather conditions, dry air and air-conditioned spaces increase the evaporation of moisture from the skin, which means that more moisture is needed.

 

Djusie’s Acid Bloom Balancing Essence treatment keeps the skin’s pH perfectly balanced and the moisture content optimal. The skin becomes bright, firm, supple and plump, and less prone to the formation of impurities and other imbalances. Acid Bloom is suitable for all skin types.

 

3. Facial Oil

 

In addition to water, the skin also needs fat and the best source is genuine, cold-pressed vegetable oils, as they naturally contain omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants and minerals that soothe inflammation, rejuvenate the skin, balance sebum secretion, strengthen the skin’s protective barrier and nourish the skin. The oils prevent water from evaporating from the skin and thus improve the skin’s moisture content. In addition, they protect the skin from external stressors. Oils are best absorbed into well-moisturised skin, so it is important to hydrate the skin first with an essence.

Facial oil should be applied to the face, neck and décolleté. The application should be combined with a facial massage that warms the skin; improves the skin’s metabolism, microcirculation and lymph fluid flow; and helps the skin absorb the oil more effectively.


Djusie’s Fruit Glaze Vitalising & Brightening Facial Oil is squalane-based. The composition of squalane is very close to the skin’s own sebum composition, which means that it is very well absorbed and prevents moisture evaporation from the skin, keeping the skin smooth and plump. In addition, its antioxidant properties prevent the skin’s own sebum from oxidising, thus preventing impurities and pore clogging. Djusie’s Fruit Glaze facial oil strengthens the skin’s protective barrier, polishes the skin, improves elasticity, brightens skin tone, and prevents and lightens pigment spots on the skin.

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The most common skin imbalances (combination skin, dry, oily skin, and sensitive skin) are often classified as skin types even though they are caused by either internal or external factors and are generally treatable. Treating imbalances can take time, as each person’s skin is affected by different factors. Just updating the products they use is enough for some, but someone else may need to make changes to their diet or balance factors in the nervous system. Everyone’s skin lives in a constant state of change in relation to internal and external factors, so it’s not worth comparing your skin journey to anyone else’s.

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THE ORIGINS OF IMBALANCES

 

The most common of all skin imbalances is dehydration or surface dryness. Dehydrated skin is not, however, a skin type, but a sign that too much moisture is evaporating from the skin. Dehydration can occur in all skin types and it is usually the first sign of a skin imbalance that can lead to other common imbalances: impurities and sensitivity. Reasons for increased moisture evaporation include

  • Skin not being cared for
  • Insufficient water moisturisation or hydration 
  • Incorrect treatment methods, such as a moisturiser that is too thick combined with insufficient water hydration or washing the skin with too strong a cleanser
  • Stress
  • Sleeplessness
  • Cold air
  • Dry air
  • Intense heat
  • Wind
  • Strong UV radiation
  • Air-conditioning
  • Air pollution
  • Poor nutrition
  • Unprotected skin

 

 

When the skin is poorly moisturised for a long time, the keratinization process is disrupted and the surface of the skin becomes ‘shield-like’, that is, it feels thick and rough and is dull in colour. Moisture and conditioning agents are then not absorbed into the skin but rather rejected, leaving them on the surface. Despite the use of skin oil or thick cream, the skin feels tight. The skin also becomes easily clogged – it is very common for skin suffering from long-term dehydration to have a lot of blockages and milia. Thus, one of the causes of impurities may be decreased moisture content.

In addition to reduced moisture content, the formation of impurities can be caused by poor blood circulation to the skin, a blocked lymphatic system, an alkaline pH on the skin’s surface, or an imbalance of microbial flora. Impurities can also be caused by stress, indigestion, and hormones. High-quality and natural skin care products, regular facial massages, a diet composed of whole foods, and the relaxation of the nervous system all support the well-being of the skin.

Skin sensitivity can be caused by many different factors including lack of skin care; improper care, such as washing the skin with products that are too strong or too activating; stress; anxiety; hormonal imbalances; digestive problems; and a nutrient-poor diet. These factors can result in the microbial flora of the skin becoming unbalanced and the protective barrier of the skin is weakened, which disrupts the skin’s immune system. In addition, the skin’s microcirculation may be poor and there may be blockages in the lymphatic system due to tension or stress in the face or throughout the body.

Combination skin

The characteristics of combination skin are a mixture of dry and oily areas of skin. The skin type behind combination skin is either dry or normal. The skin is usually dull, the T-zone is oily and has blackheads and impurities, and the skin can shine during the day. At the same time, however, the skin will feel tight in some areas, and dry or flaky spots may appear on the skin.

Skin care for combination skin

Cleanse combination skin in the mornings and evenings with cleansing oil. Soap, cleansing foams and gels should be avoided. After cleansing, the skin should be moisturised with an essence that contains mild acids. Acidic products revitalise the skin’s own production of moisturisers and balance the hydrolipidic membrane, allowing the skin to function better. They also ease dryness and reduce impurities. Finally, facial oil should be applied to the skin. This will strengthen the skin’s protective barrier and balance sebum secretion. A facial massage a few times a week will improve the metabolism of the skin and help to remove waste products, improving the colour of the skin and reducing impurities.

Seborrhea sicca or dry oily skin

The surface of dry oily skin is dry, tight and even scaly, despite the skin being heavily oily and makeup not adhering. The colour is dull, and the skin may also be sensitive. Dry oily skin is very similar to combination skin, but it has more impurities and blackheads, as well as milia. The surface of the skin may also be shield-like and thick due to moisture deprivation. Incorrect care of oily skin can lead to dry oily skin.

Skin care for dry oily skin

Cleanse dry oily skin in the mornings and evenings with a cleansing oil. Incorporate a facial massage into the cleansing routine to improve the skin’s metabolism. The skin should be moisturised with an essence containing mild acids to hydrate the skin, strengthen its protective barrier, brighten its tone and prevent the formation of impurities. Finally, a facial oil should be applied to the skin to balance sebum secretion, soothe inflammation and soften the skin. A facial massage a few times a week is an important part of the skin care routine, as this improves the skin’s metabolism and aids the removal of waste products, preventing the formation of impurities.

Sensitive skin

Skin sensitivity may manifest itself as redness, itchiness or a burning sensation. The symptoms can come and go, but sometimes the sensitivity can progress into inflammation, rash or inflamed pimples – and these we can call real skin problems.

Facial care for sensitive skin

Cleanse sensitive skin in the evenings with either cleansing oil or mild cleansing milk. If your skin is extremely sensitive, you can rinse your face in the mornings with plain water. The skin should be moisturised with an essence that soothes and reduces redness – the active ingredients of the essence will vary depending on individual needs because each sensitive skin is unique. Mild acids can balance some sensitive skin but irritate others. The aim is to first soothe the skin and prevent irritation and only then to strengthen it. It can sometimes it can take 2–3 months to soothe the skin. For a facial oil, you should choose a product made from genuine cold-pressed vegetable oils, as omega fatty acids soothe inflammation and strengthen the skin’s protective barrier. The product may also contain soothing essential oils, but bear in mind that not all sensitive skins tolerate essential oils.

 

Acids in various forms have been one of the most popular groups of active ingredients in skin care products for several decades. Properly used in appropriate concentrations, acids are highly effective, multifunctional substances that brighten, moisturise and rejuvenate the skin.

When using acids, the most important thing is not to choose too strong a concentration for your skin type. At concentrations that are too strong, the benefits of acids can be reversed and result in skin irritation, dryness and redness. Repeated irritation of the skin with acids that are too strong can lead to the onset of certain skin problems. 

In addition to the acid’s strength, its pH will also affect how your skin reacts to it. To achieve an exfoliating effect a sufficient acid concentration is required, while the pH of the product must be between 3-4.

Acids affect the skin chemically. They improve the desquamation of dead skin cells and soften and tighten the structure of the skin. In addition, they brighten and even out the skin tone. Alongside their exfoliating effect, acids are humectants. The effect of the application of acid varies depending on the type of acid selected, and its concentration and pH.

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Acids are used as an active ingredient in both leave-on and rinse-off products. Acids that are in products for daily use are usually in a liquid form, such as an essence. The concentrations of such products range from less than 3% to 7-8%, depending on the acid type selected and the type of skin for which the product is intended. Concentrations between 7-10 % can be also used every other day or couple of times in a week – daily use is not always necessary or even recommended. Concentrations that are removed from the skin typically have a concentration of 10%–25% and are not intended for daily use. Salicylic acid is an exception, as its maximum permissible concentration without a prescription is 2%. Of the alpha hydroxy acids (AHA), glycolic acid is known to be the strongest, which is why it is not used in products intended to be left on the skin in concentrations stronger than 5%.

Acids for daily use are the gentlest and this is the best way to use acids. If used daily, it is usually not necessary to apply a separate exfoliating product to the skin, except very occasionally, when, for example, the skin has been exposed to severe weather conditions for a long time causing it to become temporarily dehydrated and the stratum corneum too thick. A daily dose of acid maintains the skin’s pH balance, that is, it keeps the skin’s hydrolipidic film acidic, which creates good conditions for a balanced skin microbiome. Acidity also maintains the optimal skin moisture and the keratinization process, leaving the skin clear, moisturised, smooth and supple.

The myth that acids will make the skin thinner is not true. With ageing, the keratinization process slows down and stratum corneum, the uppermost layer of the skin, thickens. Disorders in keratinization can also occur in young skin and the stratum corneum may become thickened. AHAs normalise the keratinization process and desquamation of dead skin cells, which thins the stratum corneum if it has become too thick. This normalises the skin’s functions and makes the skin’s surface more elastic and resilient. With ageing, the lower layer of the skin, the dermis, becomes thinner, causing the skin to lose its fullness and become saggy. AHAs strengthen the dermis, that is the collagen and elastin fibers, and increase the amount of glycosaminoglycans in the intercellular matrix, which improves the moisture content of the dermis, making the skin fuller and smoother.

Different types of acids

 

AHAs or alpha hydroxy acids
AHAs or alpha hydroxy acids are also called fruit acids. They include glycolic acid, lactic acid, amygdalic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and citric acid. They occur naturally in fruits and berries such as sugar cane, bilberries, grapes, cranberries and apples, but are usually made synthetically. AHAs exfoliate, brighten, moisturise, soften and polish the skin, and help substances be better absorbed into the skin. AHAs should not be used on skins that suffer from rosacea, sensitive acne or perioral dermatitis.

Glycolic acid

Glycolic acid has the smallest molecule size of all AHAs, which is why it is absorbed more deeply than other acids and is, therefore, more effective, but also the most easily irritating. It is one of the few substances that has been found to be absorbed all the way to the dermis. Glycolic acid is rarely used in products intended to be left on the skin in concentrations of over 5%. When using glycolic acid, the skin should be protected with a cream containing a sun protection factor. It is especially good for the treatment of wrinkles, sagging and thickened skin, and pigment spots.

Lactic acid

Lactic acid has a higher molecular weight than glycolic acid and is not absorbed quite as deeply. It moisturises and brightens the skin effectively and is also found naturally in the skin’s Natural Moisturising Factor, which is created by the keratinization Process. At concentrations of more than 5%, lactic acid acts as an exfoliating agent. It is especially good for dull, dehydrated, dry skin and mature skin

 

Mandelic acid

Mandelic acid has the biggest molecule size of all AHAs. It is absorbed into the skin slowly and does not irritate as easily as smaller molecular acids. Mandelic acid has antibacterial properties, unlike glycolic acid. It is especially good for acne and acne scars.

Malic acid

Malic acid has a higher molecular weight than glycolic and lactic acid, and works best in combination with other acids. It is especially good for clogged skin.

Tartaric acid

Tartaric acid is usually used in combination with other acids. It can also be used to adjust the pH of a product.

Citric acid

Citric acid is generally used to adjust the pH of a product.

BHA or beta hydroxy acid
BHA or beta hydroxy acid is known as salicylic acid.

Salicylic acid

Willow bark naturally contains salicylic acid, which is a BHA or beta hydroxy acid. Salicylic acid is fat-soluble, making it well-suited for oily or clogged skin and acne. It helps to clear clogged skin pores, prevents the formation of comedos and has antiseptic effects.

PHAs or polyhydroxy acids
PHAs, or polyhydroxy acids, have a heavier molecular weight than glycolic acid, so do not irritate the skin as easily, but have similar effects to AHAs. PHAs exfoliate, moisturise, brighten, firm and smooth the skin, and strengthen its protective barrier. In addition, PHAs have antioxidant properties, meaning they protect the skin from free radicals.

Gluconolactone

Gluconolactone is not absorbed as deeply into the skin as glycolic acid, which makes it less irritating to the skin. Gluconolactone is a multi-purpose acid due to its antioxidant and skin-barrier strengthening properties. In addition, it is suitable for sensitive and even rosacea-prone skin and with regular use can reduce the redness of the skin. It is especially good for sensitive, dull, dehydrated or dry skin, and for the treatment of wrinkles and sagging skin.

Lactobionic acid

Lactobionic acid moisturises the skin and protects it from free radicals. It is especially good for sensitive, dehydrated and dry skin.

Djusie Acid Bloom Balancing Essence contains the perfect cocktail of gentle acids for daily use in the morning and evening. The product can be applied to the skin in 1–3 layers and is also suitable for the skin around the eyes. If you have not used acids on your skin before, you should accustom your skin gradually by starting with applying one layer in the evenings. The skin may turn red and feel slightly tingly, to begin with, but this sensation will quickly subside and your skin will get used to the acids within a couple of weeks. If your skin does not react at all, you can start using the product in the mornings and evenings. Acid Bloom contains plant-based gluconolactone, which is suitable even for sensitive skin, as well as apple cider vinegar and soothing Reishi mushroom, gotu kola, betaine and xylitol. Reishi brightens the skin colour, while gotu kola enhances collagen production. Acid Bloom will make your skin glow lusciously. Acid Bloom has an acid content of 4.2% and a pH of approximately 3.5.

 

 

Source: Jeffrey S. Dover & Murad Alam: Procedures in Cosmetic Dermatology: Chemical Peels

 

 

Essential oils are substances that contain the entire ‘core’ or ‘soul’ of a plant. The essential oil of a single plant can contain dozens or even hundreds of nature’s own chemical components that form a harmonious whole. It is not only the benefit to the skin of essential oils that is relevant: the fragrances can have mind-altering effects as well due to their biochemical ingredients and this aspect is one of the cornerstones of traditional natural cosmetics. Aromatherapy utilises these chemical components contained in essential oils, which are various aldehydes, phenols, alcohols and esters.

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Aromacology, on the other hand, is a discipline based on scientific research methods and results obtained in laboratory studies. Aromatherapy is much more widely used in Central Europe than in the Nordic countries, and in France, for example, essential oils are also used internally under medical supervision. In this case, the oils must be chemotyped. A chemotype describes the chemical and biological properties of the plant and the molecules that the oil contains the most of and on which its effect is based. One plant can produce a wide variety of chemical components depending on, among other things, the growth conditions of the plant, which affect the therapeutic and toxicological properties of the essential oil.

Essential oils are mainly made by distillation, but some flowers, such as rose, jasmine and orange blossom, cannot withstand the heating that this process requires and thus their oils are extracted. The extraction solvent is then distilled at a low temperature to produce an absolute flower extract. Some oils, such as those from citrus, are made from the peel of a plant by pressing. The oil content of plants ranges from 0.01% to 10%: for example, one drop of rose essential oil requires the petals of 30 roses.

Individual fragrance components can also be isolated from essential oils. Some natural cosmetics brands perfume their products with such fragrance components. In this case, the aromatherapeutic and skin-care effects of the whole essential oil are lost. The principle of Djusie is that perfumes (INCI: parfum) are not added to the products separately, but that the scents of the products come from whole essential oils, as these make the products more caring for the skin. The following Djusie products contain essential oils: Liquid Silk Perfect Cleansing Oil and Fruit Glaze Vitalising & Brightening Facial Oil.

The ingredients of essential oils are also synthetically imitated in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. An example is rose otto, which is one of the most precious essential oils in the world. It contains over three hundred different chemical components, including phenylethyl alcohol – an aromatic alcohol with a floral scent. Geraniol, on the other hand, smells like rose and is used in insect repellents, as is lemon-scented citronellol. Linalool, contained in lavender essential oil, smells of a spicy flower and has an anti-inflammatory effect, as does linalyl acetatella. These components can be found in many cosmetic products or household chemicals, even if they do not contain whole lavender oil or rose oil. From the perspective of aromatherapy, it is considered that the whole essential oil forms a harmonious whole that occurs in nature as such and that therefore the effects are based on this whole. If the whole is broken down, the aromatherapeutic effects may be lost and replaced by harmful or skin-irritating effects. For example, the sedative azulene from chamomile is more effective as part of the whole chamomile essential oil than as an isolated single component, and some aldehydes, in turn, can become harmful and irritating. Some people may also react to artificially made citral, but not to the whole essential oil of lemongrass. Nevertheless, if a fragrance sensitivity has been identified, proper care must always be taken with substances containing that allergen.

Some of the components contained in essential oils are classified as allergens/sensitisers, and these must be listed in the product’s INCI list in accordance with EU cosmetics legislation. There are currently 26 components classified as allergens, of which 16 are in whole essential oils. This does not mean that when a substance (e.g. geraniol) is listed separately from its essential oil (e.g. geranium essential oil) that it has been separately added to the product or synthetically produced.

The following allergens/sensitisers may be present in whole essential oils:

 

Benzyl alcohol
Benzyl salicylate
Cinnamyl alcohol
Cinnamal
Citral
Coumarin
Farnesol
Limonene

Eugenol
Geraniol
Isoeugenol
Anisyl alcohol
Benzyl benzoate
Benzyl cinnamate
Citronellol
Linalool

Essential oils should never be used directly on the skin in their undiluted form (there are exceptions for some oils, but this should always be checked) and when diluted, a dose of 0.5%-2% in a product for a healthy adult is appropriate, depending on the intended use. The use of essential oils comes with restrictions and properties that should always be checked before using them.

According to EU cosmetics legislation, the packaging of a cosmetic product must display a list of the ingredients contained in the product. This is called the INCI list. The raw materials contained in the product are indicated in order of quantity. However, substances that form less than 1% of the product may be declared in any order. On Djusie’s INCI lists, the raw materials are always listed in their actual order of quantity.

Product lines do not indicate the concentrations of the raw materials used as this would reveal the recipe of the product. However, some products indicate the contents of the active ingredients.

A complete recipe cannot be established based on the INCI list alone, but when you know a few basic things about making a moisturiser, for example, you can draw indicative conclusions about the composition of the product.

To interpret an INCI list, it is necessary to understand the functions of raw materials. One ingredient can have several functions. The common functions of the raw materials used in skincare products can be found below.

Surface-active agent or surfactant

Surfactants reduce the surface tension of a product, affecting its spreadability, and help insoluble substances to dissolve in each other. Surfactants act as the emulsifier in an emulsion (e.g. a moisturiser), as well as the cleaning agent in a cleansing product, enabling the product to be rinsed off the skin. The ‘solubilisers’ used in toners containing essential oils to dissolve the oils in an otherwise aqueous product are also surfactants.

Solvent

Dissolves other substances. The most common solvent is water (aqua), but natural cosmetics often also use floral waters, birch sap or aloe vera juice, which are also mainly water. In addition, plant-based propylene glycol (propylene glycol) may be used in natural cosmetics. A solvent is an essential substance in emulsions such as moisturiser, essence and serums containing water-soluble ingredients.

Occlusive

Occlusives are substances that form a thin film on the surface of the skin. This film protects the skin from water evaporation, cold temperatures and wind. Occlusives may be synthetic, such as mineral oil or synthetic fats, or natural vegetable waxes, such as cocoa butter, beeswax or shea butter. Vegetable waxes contain fatty acids, vitamins and minerals that are good for the skin, thus making them the most beneficial option.

Emulsion Stabiliser

Emulsion stabilisers ensure that the phases contained in an emulsion do not begin to separate from each other and that the composition of the product remains smooth. Examples of such substances are cetearyl alcohol and chelating agents such as sodium phytate and sodium gluconate. Chelating agents bind to and neutralise metal ions, which helps to maintain the product’s stable composition, that is, keep it smooth.

Emulsifier

An emulsifier is a surfactant that causes two insoluble materials to combine with each other. It is a mandatory substance in an emulsion, such as moisturiser. Cleansing oil, which is rinsed off the skin with water, also contains an emulsifier. The emulsifiers used in natural cosmetics are always plant-based. Common emulsifiers include, for example, cetearyl olivate, sorbitan olivate, cetearyl alcohol, coco-glucoside, polyglyceryl-6 distearate and glyceryl stearate.

Gelling agent

A gelling agent makes a liquid product gel-like. For example, gel serums, rich essences and micellar gel cleansers are aqueous liquid products that are thickened into a gel through the use of a gelling agent. Common gelling agents in natural cosmetics are gum arabic (acacia senegal gum) and xanthan gum (xanthan gum).

Preservative

Products containing water are highly susceptible to the growth of harmful microbes and fungi, which is why such products must contain a preservative. In order to improve the shelf life, natural cosmetics use nature-identical substances, which are also used in the food industry. The most common preservatives include dehydroacetic acid, sodium dehydroacetate, sodium levunilate, sodium anisate, benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate. Products that contain only oil-soluble substances do not need a preservative. However, many vegetable oils and essential oils are sensitive to oxidation, causing them to lose their potency. Oxidation can be prevented through the addition of antioxidants such as vitamin E.

Humectant

Humectants are substances that moisturise the skin. When applied to the skin, they begin to absorb moisture from the environment, attaching it to the surface of the skin and thus improving the skin’s moisture balance. Some humectants are characterised by a slightly sticky or clammy composition. If humectants are used too much or in a very dry environment, they can absorb moisture from the skin and dry it out. Common humectants include glycerin, betaine, Sodium PCA, hyaluronic acid and xylitol.

Viscosity modifier

Viscosity modifiers are also called thickeners and may additionally have a stabilising effect on emulsions. Examples of viscosity modifiers include vegetable waxes, cetearyl alcohol and various gums, such as xanthan gum.

Emollient

Substances that soften the skin are called emollients. They also have a moisturising effect as they prevent water from evaporating from the skin. Emollients can be natural, such as vegetable oils or esters produced by resolving vegetable oils and converting them into another substance, or synthetic, such as silicones or mineral oils. The most beneficial emollients for the skin are whole vegetable oils.

Fragrance

Fragrances can be either natural or synthetic. Only natural fragrances are allowed in natural cosmetics. These can be either whole essential oils or individual fragrance components isolated from the essential oils. Some fragrance components are classified as allergens, that is, the most common allergens are marked as such. If the whole essential oil or perfume mixture contains such components, they must be listed in the INCI list in accordance with EU cosmetics legislation. There are currently 26 substances classified as allergens, 16 of which are present in essential oils. If, for example, the product contains lavender essential oil, the fragrance component linalool must also be included in the list. The 16 substances classified as allergens in natural perfumes and essential oils are:

 

Geraniol
Isoeugenol
Anisyl alcohol
Benzyl benzoate
Benzyl cinnamate
Citronellol
Farnesol
Limonene
Linalool

Benzyl alcohol
Benzyl salicylate
Cinnamyl alcohol
Cinnamal
Citral
Coumarin
Eugenol

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An example of a lotion INCI:

Moisturisers are almost invariably o/w or oil-in-water emulsions, which means that the aqueous phase is the external phase (water and water-soluble substances) and the oil phase is the internal phase (oil and oil-soluble substances).

The aqueous phase constitutes 80%–90% of the product, depending on the composition of the moisturiser. The thinner the composition, the higher the proportion of the aqueous phase. Since a skin cream contains mostly water, the first substance on the INCI list will be purified water, or aqua. Purified water can also be partially or completely replaced with some floral water or plant extract. However, this does not make the product anhydrous, as the floral waters are formed as a by-product of the distillation of essential oils, that is, they are purified water into which the components contained in essential oils have been dissolved. Often purified water is also replaced with aloe vera juice, which is purified water mixed with freeze-dried aloe vera powder. In this case, the INCI name will be Aloe barbadensis leaf juice. Plant extracts used in place of purified water are also extracted into water.

After water or its substitute, there will be an oil phase on the INCI list, which accounts for 10%–25% of the product, depending on its composition. If the oil phase consists of genuine vegetable oils, the raw materials are easy to identify, as they appear as the Latin name of the plant and in many cases the English name of the plant is also given. Whole vegetable oils are always the most caring option for the skin, however they can also be replaced by resolved facial oils, that is, ester oils, which are natural substances but lack the caring effects of whole vegetable oils. The reason for the use of esters may be the silky feeling the ester oil offers on the skin, as well as its lower cost compared to authentic, whole vegetable oils. In general, low-cost cosmetics contain just these oils. Ester oils include caprylic/capric triglyceride, dicaprylyl ether, coco-caprylate, decyl cocoate and isoamyl laurate. These oils are almost invariably palm-oil derivatives.

The oil phase also contains an emulsifier, which often comprises 4%–6% of the total product, and ranks at the top of the INCI list after the most-used oils in the oil phase. Emulsifiers used in natural cosmetics are always plant-based and are almost invariably sold as ready-made mixtures of two or more substances. The emulsifier is an essential substance in an emulsion as it dissolves the insoluble aqueous phase and the oil phase.

Water, oils and an emulsifier form the basis of the moisturiser – about 90% or more of the product. For this reason, it is important to choose a product with a base that is as caring as possible, that is, it contains whole vegetable oils instead of resolved ester oils.

The amount of actual active ingredients in the product is low, some 5% or less in low-price products. The active ingredients include humectants, that is, moisturising agents, as well as various plant extracts, fruit acids, vitamins and so on.

Each active ingredient and humectant has individual, recommended concentrations for use in such a product and a large amount does not equate to efficacy or an optimal concentration. In addition to the active ingredients, the vegetable oils in the oil phase are also caring agents and the water in the aqueous phase hydrates the skin.

Plant extracts are among the most important active ingredients in natural cosmetics. There are also differences in their quality: they are often extracted into glycerin, water, alcohol, or a combination of water and glycerin. What is crucial is the amount of solid (i.e. plant) in the extract, as well as the quality of the plant itself and the extraction process. For plant extracts, the solvent into which the extract has been extracted must also be entered in the INCI list. For example, if the product contains 2% of a plant extract, this does not mean that this is the amount of plant in the product, because, for example, a 10% strength extract contains 90% solvent. In this case, the solvent is first mentioned in the INCI list according to its concentration, and the name of the plant itself and the part of the plant from which it has been extracted are mentioned later. Solvent and plant name are rarely listed in succession.

The viscosity of the moisturiser can be adjusted with a thickener or viscosity modifier. Thickeners can be vegetable waxes, hydrogenated vegetable oils or, commonly, cetearyl alcohol (cetearyl alcohol). Thickeners may also have emulsion stabilising properties. Various gums such as xanthan gum (xanthan gum) are also popular viscosity modifiers and can act as a gelling agent too. The amount of thickeners in a product varies, but is usually in the 0.5%–2% range, except for gums, which comprise 0.2%–1% of the product.

Because moisturisers contain water-soluble substances and oils, they are susceptible to harmful microbes. Therefore, the product must contain a preservative, usually comprising 1%–2% of the product.

The moisturiser may also contain a fragrance unless the product is fragrance-free. In natural cosmetics, whole essential oils are used as fragrances, identified in the INCI list by their Latin name, as well as fragrance components which are isolated from essential oils, in which case the INCI list will state ‘parfum’. In addition to the fragrant effect, the whole essential oils have caring effects, and using an essential oil as the fragrance makes the product kinder on the skin. The amount of perfume in a moisturiser is typically less than 1%.

Fragrances and preservatives typically appear at the end of the INCI list and the very last ones listed are the potential allergens.

Djusie products do not contain any raw materials that are not necessary for the skin or the functioning of the product. The effectiveness of the products is based on the genuine benefits to skin care of ingredients, not how they feel on the skin. Therefore, Djusie’s products do not contain ester oils or isolated fragrance components; rather the oils used are always whole vegetable oils and the scents of the products come from genuine essential oils. For this reason, where products contain entirely water-soluble ingredients, such as Djusie’s Acid Bloom essence, it will smell of the active ingredients it contains. If essential oils had been added to it, the product would also have to contain a solubiliser, that is, a surfactant, which has no benefit for the skin.

Moisture is the foundation of clear and healthy skin. When we talk about the moisture content of the skin, we mean the moisture content of the outer layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum of the skin, where the moisture level should be about 13%. The moisture content of the deeper layers of the epidermis is 60%–70% and this area gets its moisture from the dermis, which is located below the epidermis. When the skin’s moisture content is sufficient, its keratinization process is maintained, which manages the skin’s natural moisturising factor (NMF) and the skin remains balanced and, for example, does not become sensitive and dry. Balanced skin is soft, supple, plump and clear. Because many external and internal factors can cause trans-epidermal water loss from the skin, it must be moisturised externally. However, there are a few misconceptions about moisturising the skin.

 

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Moisturising The Skin – Hydrating vs. Moisturising


The process of moisturising the skin is often misunderstood and therefore we need to make a distinction between the terms ‘hydrating’ and ‘moisturising’. Hydrating means adding water moisture to the skin. Aqueous products such as essence and very light moisturisers are used for hydrating. The word moisturising, on the other hand, means to bind moisture to the skin, that is, to prevent moisture from evaporating from the skin. Facial oils or very rich moisturisers are used for this purpose. The fats they contain prevent moisture from evaporating away from the skin. The skin needs both water and fats, and there is no reason to be afraid of using fats as they do not clog the skin. Thus, moisturising the skin does not simply mean using a moisturiser on its own, and especially not a thick cream.

Moisturising the skin is very important if the weather is dry, cold or windy, or if you spend time indoors in an air-conditioned space. All these environmental factors increase the evaporation of moisture from the skin. Oily skin can also suffer from a lack of moisture, that is, dehydrated from the surface, which makes the skin feel dry, tight and scaly. Prolonged dehydration can lead to various skin problems as it disrupts both enzyme activity on the skin and the keratinization process responsible for moisturising and protecting the skin. Disorders of the keratinization process thus weaken the skin’s own protective mechanism.

The most common cause of tightness of the skin, despite moisturising, is dehydration. Most people are familiar with the sensation of tight skin, regardless of how greasy the skin itself is. This is a sign that the skin is suffering from a lack of moisture. This lack of moisture makes the surface of the skin thick and shield-like, stopping substances from being absorbed into it. A suitable analogy is dry, parched soil in a flowerpot: the water will sit on the surface of the dry and hardened soil before it is absorbed. But if the soil is already slightly moist, the water is absorbed immediately. It takes 1–2 weeks to revitalise dry skin. Several layers of essence containing mild acids have to be applied to the skin. The acids revitalise the skin’s moisture content, meaning that the products gradually begin to be better absorbed, allowing the skin to become soft and supple again.

 

 

Proper application techniques improve the effectiveness of products

 

Effective products are important in skin care, but it is also important to know how to apply them to the skin. You will not need to find new and more effective products if you learn the right skin-care techniques and know how to use products correctly.

The order in which to apply skin-care products is from the thinnest product to the thickest. Hydration of the skin starts by applying a few layers of essence to the face and neck. It is essential to let a small amount of essence absorb into the skin at a time. The number of layers depends on the condition of the skin and external conditions – cold and windy conditions require the application of more layers than warmer and more humid climates. The essence should not be applied by wiping it on with a cotton wool ball, but by dabbing it onto your skin with your hands. Applying essence with cotton wool will wipe the product off the skin. Dabbing it on will not waste the product, which means that it will last longer. The applied moisture will gradually be more effectively absorbed into the cell layers of the stratum corneum and the skin will become smoother and more supple.

 

 

DJUSIE essence ritual

 

  1. Apply a few drops of essence to the palms of your hands and gently rub them together.
  2. Massage the essence into your face, neck and décolleté, applying gentle pressure.
  3. Add the next layer only after the previous one has been completely absorbed.
  4. Do not dispense large amounts of the essence at once, otherwise, it will take an exasperatingly long time to get it all absorbed into your skin.

Apply facial oil to the skin after the essence. A suitable amount for the face, neck and décolleté is the amount you can get into the dropper at a time. Instead of dabbing the facial oil on your skin, apply it with caressing strokes and combine it with a facial massage that warms the skin; improves skin metabolism, microcirculation and lymphatic fluid flow; and helps the oil to be absorbed into the skin more effectively.